Selected Publications

Books and Edited Works:

o   International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Special Issue on AIED applications for ill-defined domains. Pinkwart, N., Lynch, C., Ashley, K. D., & Aleven, V. (Eds.) vol. 19, No. 3 & 4 (2010).

o   Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law, Special Issue on e-Discovery. Ashley, K., Baron, J., and Conrad, J. (Eds.) vol. 18, No. 3 (2010).

o   Proceedings of the Workshop on Computer-Supported Peer Review in Education (CSPRED-2010) at the Tenth International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Goldin, I., Brusilovsky, P., Schunn, C., Ashley, K., Hsiao, I-H. (Eds.) (2010). Pittsburgh, PA. http://www.cspred.org/proceedings

o   Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains at the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). C. Lynch, K. Ashley, A. Mitrovic, V. Dimitrova, N. Pinkwart, V. Aleven, eds. (2010). Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

o   Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains at the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Aleven, V., Ashley, K., Lynch, C., & Pinkwart, N. (Eds.) (2008). Montreal, Canada. http://www.cs.pitt.edu/~collinl/ITS08/

o   Proceedings of the Workshop on AIED Applications for Ill-Defined Domains at the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Aleven, V., Ashley, K., Lynch, C., & Pinkwart, N. (Eds.) (2007). Los Angeles (CA), published online at http://aied.inf.ed.ac.uk/AIED2007/Ill-Defined_Workshop.pdf

o   Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Ashley, K.D., Ikeda, M. & Chan, T-W. 8th International Conference, ITS 2006. Jhongli, Taiwan. June 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin.

o   Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains at the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Aleven, V., Ashley, K., Lynch, C., & Pinkwart, N. (Eds.) (2006). Jhongli (Taiwan), National Central University.

o   Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development, Ashley, K.D. & Bridge, D.G. (Eds.) (2003) 5th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2003, Trondheim, Norway, June 2003, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin. 

o   Modeling Legal Argument: Reasoning with Cases and Hypotheticals. Ashley, K.D., (1990). The MIT Press / Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA. Substantially rewritten version of (1987) Ph.D. Dissertation. COINS Technical Report No. 88‑‑01, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

o   Textual Case Based Reasoning. Lenz, M., and K.D. Ashley, editors (1998). Papers from the Workshop held at the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. AAAI‑Technical Report WS‑98‑12. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA.

 Refereed Journal Articles:

o   “Emerging AI & Law approaches to automating analysis and retrieval of electronically stored information in discovery proceedings” Ashley, K. and Bridewell, W. (2010) in Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law, Special Issue on e-Discovery. vol. 18, No. 3 pp. 311-320.

o   Evaluating an Intelligent Tutoring System for Making Legal Arguments with Hypotheticals.” Pinkwart, N., Ashley, K., Lynch, C. and Aleven, V.  (2009) International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. vol. 19, pp. 401-424.

o   “Concepts, Structures, and Goals: Redefining Ill-Definedness.”  Lynch, C.  Ashley, K. Pinkwart, N., Aleven , V. (2009). International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 253-266.

o   “Teaching a Process Model of Legal Argument with Hypotheticals.” Ashley, K. (2009) Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law. Vol. 17, No. 4. pp. 321-370.

o   “Automatically Classifying Case Texts and Predicting Outcomes.” K. D. Ashley and S. Brüninghaus (2009) In  Artificial Intelligence and Law Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 125-165.

o   “Computer Models for Legal Prediction.” K. D. Ashley and S. Brüninghaus (2006) Jurimetrics Journal Vol. 46, pp. 309-352.

o   Capturing the Dialectic between Principles and Cases.”  K.D. Ashley (2004). In Jurimetrics Vol. 44, pp. 229-279.

o   “Law, Learning and Representation”. Ashley, K. D. & Rissland, E. L. (2003) Artificial Intelligence. v. 150, pp. 17-58.

o   “An AI Model of Case‑Based Legal Argument from a Jurisprudential Viewpoint.” K.D. Ashley (2002). In the Special Issue of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law in Memory of Professor Donald H. Berman. Volume 10. Nos. 1-3. pp. 163-218.

o   Case-based Approaches to Professional Ethics: a systematic comparison of students’ and ethicists’ moral reasoning.” Keefer, M. and Ashley, K.D. (2001) Journal of Moral Education. Vol. 30, No. 4 pp.377-398.

o   “Designing Electronic Casebooks That Talk Back: The CATO Program”. Ashley, K. D. (2000) In Jurimetrics Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 275‑319.

o   Case‑Based Reasoning and its Implications for Legal Expert Systems”. Ashley, K. D. (1992). In  Artificial Intelligence and Law Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 113‑208. Kluwer. Dordrecht, Netherlands.

o    “Reasoning with Cases and Hypotheticals in Hypo”. Ashley, K. D. (1991).  In International Journal of Man‑Machine Studies, Vol. 34, pp. 753‑796. Academic Press. New York.

o   “A Case‑Based Approach to Modeling Legal Expertise”, Ashley, K.D. & Rissland, E.L. In IEEE Expert, Fall, 1988.         

Other Journal Articles, Symposia, Position Papers:

o   “Comment on Lowrance's ‘Graphical manipulation of evidence in structured arguments’” Ashley, K. (2007) in Law, Probability and Risk, 6: 241-245.

o   “Textual case-based reasoning” Weber, R., Ashley, K. and Brüninghaus, S. (2005)  The Knowledge Engineering Review, Volume 20, Issue 03, September 2005, pp 255-260.

o   “Case-based reasoning and law” Rissland, E., Ashley, K. and Branting, L.K. (2005)  The Knowledge Engineering Review, Volume 20, Issue 03, September 2005, pp 293-298

o   “A Note on Dimensions and Factors”, Rissland, E.L. and Ashley, K.D. (2002). In the Special Issue of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law in Memory of Professor Donald H. Berman. Volume 10. Nos. 1-3. pp. 65-77.

o   “Legal Reasoning and Artificial Intelligence: How Computers ‘Think’ Like Lawyers”, Kevin Ashley, Karl Branting, Howard Margolis, Cass R. Sunstein (2001) Symposium, University of Chicago Law School Roundtable v. 8, p. 1.

o   “What I Told The Law and Computers Association of Japan About Information Technology in Law School Education.” K.D. Ashley (2001). University of Pittsburgh Law Review. v. 62, Summer, pp. 545-578.

o   Position Paper for AAAI 2006 Fellows Symposium, Kevin D. Ashley, University of Pittsburgh


Refereed Conference and Workshop Proceedings:

o   "Toward AI-enhanced Computer-supported Peer Review in Legal Education." Ashley, K.D and Goldin, I.M. (2011) Jurix 2011: The 24th Annual Conference, pp. 1-12 (Katie M. Atkinson ed.) IOS Press 2011.

o   “Toward Extracting Information from Public Health Statutes using Text Classification and Machine Learning” M. Grabmair, K.D. Ashley, R. Hwa and P.M. Sweeney (2011) Jurix 2011: The 24th Annual Conference, pp. 73-82 (Katie M. Atkinson ed.) IOS Press 2011.

o   "Peering Inside Peer Review with Bayesian Models." Goldin, Ilya M., Kevin D. Ashley. (2011) Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6738, pp. 90-97. Auckland, New Zealand

o   “Facilitating Case Comparison Using Value Judgments and Intermediate Legal Concepts.” Grabmair, M. and Ashley, K.D. (2011) Proceedings Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL 2011), pp. 161-170. ACM Press. Donald H. Berman Award for Best Student Paper.

o   “Can Temporal Representation and Reasoning make a Difference in Automated Legal Reasoning? Lessons from an AI-based Ethical Reasoner.” McLaren, Bruce M. and Ashley, Kevin D. (2011) Proceedings Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL 2011), pp. 229-238. ACM Press.

o   Argumentation with Value Judgments - An Example of Hypothetical Reasoning.” Grabmair, M. and Ashley, K.D. (2010) Jurix 2010: The 23rd Annual Conference, 67-76 (R.G.F. Winkels ed.) IOS Press.

o   “Eliciting Informative Feedback in Peer Review: Importance of Problem-Specific Scaffolding”. Goldin, I., Ashley, K. (2010) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Pittsburgh, USA.

o   “Learning by Reviewing through Peer Feedback Refinement.” Goldin, Ilya M., Kevin D. Ashley. (2010) Proceedings of the Workshop on Computer-Supported Peer Review in Education, 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Pittsburgh, USA

o   “Borderline Cases of Ill-definedness – and How Different Definitions Deal with Them.” Ashley, K., Lynch, C., Pinkwart, N., Aleven. (2010) Proceedings of Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Technologies for Ill-Defined Problems and Ill-Defined Domains. (ITS Workshop), Pittsburgh, PA, June.

o   “Argument Diagramming and Diagnostic Reliability.” Lynch, C., Ashley, K. D., Pinkwart, N., & Aleven, V. (2009). In Guido Governatori (Ed.) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, Jurix 2009: The Twenty-Second Annual Conference. p. 106-115. Amsterdam, IOS Pres

o   “Ontological Requirements for Analogical, Teleological, and Hypothetical Legal Reasoning” Ashley, K. (2009) In  Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. pp. 1-10. ACM Press. Barcelona, June.

o   “What a Legal CBR Ontology Should Provide.” Ashley, K. (2009) In Proceedings of the 22d International FLAIRS Conference, Special Track on Case-Based Reasoning, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. May.

o   “Using Critical Questions to Disambiguate and Formalize Statutory Provisions.” Grabmair, M. and Ashley, K.  (2009) In Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. pp. 240-1. ACM Press. Barcelona, June.

o   “Toward Assessing Law Students’ Argument Diagrams.”  Lynch, C., Ashley, K., Pinkwart, N., and Aleven, V. (2009) In Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. pp. 222-3. Barcelona, June.

o   “Assessing Argument Diagrams in an Ill-Defined Domain.” Pinkwart, N., Lynch, C., Ashley, K. and Aleven, V. (2009) In V. Dimitrova, R. Mizoguchi, B. du Bulay, & A. Graesser (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. pp. 590-592. Amsterdam (The Netherlands), IOS Press. Brighton. July.

o   “Toward Modeling and Teaching Legal Case-based Adaptation with Expert Examples” Ashley, K., Lynch, C., Pinkwart, N., and Aleven, V. (2009)  In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5650 pp. 45-59. Berlin (Germany), Springer. Seattle. July.

o   “A Process Model of Legal Argument with Hypotheticals.” Ashley, K., Lynch, C., Pinkwart, N., Aleven, V. (2008). In Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, Proceedings of  Jurix 2008: 21st Annual Conference, pp. 1-10. Firenze, December.

o   “Reevaluating LARGO in the Classroom: Are Diagrams Better than Text for Teaching Argumentation Skills?”  Pinkwart, N., Lynch, C., Ashley, K., and Aleven, V. (2008) In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Pp. 90-100. Montreal, June.

o   “Graph Grammars: an ITS Technology for Diagram Representations” Pinkwart, N., Ashley, K., Aleven, V. and Lynch, C. (2008) In Proceedings of The 21st International FLAIRS Conference, Special Track on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 433-438.Coconut Grove, Florida, USA. May.

o   “Argument Graph Classification with Genetic Programming and C4.5”, Lynch, C., Ashley, K., Pinkwart, N., and Aleven V. (2008) In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Educational Data Mining. Pp. 137-146 Montreal, Quebec, Canada. June.

o   “What do argument diagrams tell us about students’ aptitude or experience? A statistical analysis in an ill-defined domain,” Lynch, C., Pinkwart, N., Ashley, K., and Aleven, V. (2008). In Proceedings of the Workshop on ITSs for Ill-structured Domains: Focusing on Assessment and Feedback at the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. June. http://www.cs.pitt.edu/~collinl/ITS08/

o   “Evaluating Legal Argument Instruction with Graphical Representations using LARGO”, Pinkwart, N., Aleven, V., Ashley, K., Lynch, C. (2007)  In R. Luckin, K. Koedinger, & J. Greer (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2007) p. 101-108. Amsterdam (Niederlande), IOS Press.

o   “Argument diagramming as focusing device: does it scaffold reading?” Lynch, C., Ashley, K., Pinkwart, N., & Aleven, V. (2007). In V. Aleven, K. Ashley, C. Lynch, & N. Pinkwart (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on “AIED Applications in Ill-Defined Domains” at the 13th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (p. 51-60). Los Angeles (CA), http://aied.inf.ed.ac.uk/AIED2007/Ill-Defined_Workshop.pdf

o   “Interpretive Reasoning with Hypothetical Cases”, Ashley, K. (2007) Proceedings of The 20th International FLAIRS Conference, Special Track on Case-Based Reasoning, Key West, Florida, USA. May.

o   “Learning by Diagramming Supreme Court Oral Arguments”, Ashley, K., Pinkwart, N., Lynch, C., Aleven, V. (2007) In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL-07) p. 271-275. New York (NY), ACM Press.

o   “Assessing Case Analyses in Bioengineering Ethics Education: Reliability and Training”, Goldin, I.,  Ashley, K., Pinkus, R. (2006) International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE-2006) Puerto Rico, July.

o   “Toward Legal Argument Instruction with Graph Grammars and Collaborative Filtering Techniques” Pinkwart, N., Aleven, V., Ashley, K.,  Lynch, C. (2006) In M. Ikeda, K. Ashley, & T. W. Chan (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4053: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (p. 227-236). Berlin, Springer.

o   “Progress in Textual Case-Based Reasoning: Predicting the Outcome of Legal Cases from Text”, Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley K. (2006) Proceedings, Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-06) pp. 1577-1580. Boston. July.

o   "Teaching  Case Analysis through Framing: Prospects for an ITS in an ill-defined  domain" Goldin, I.,  Ashley, K., and Pinkus, R. (2006) ITS 2006 Workshop on "Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains” Jhongli, Taiwan. June 2006.

o   "Supporting  Self-explanation of Argument Transcript: Specific v. Generic Prompts" Aleven, V., Pinkwart, N., Ashley, K., Lynch, C. (2006) In V. Aleven, K. Ashley, C. Lynch, & N. Pinkwart (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains at the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (p. 47-55). Jhongli (Taiwan), National Central University.

o   "Defining Ill-Defined Domains; A literature survey." Lynch, C., Ashley, K., Aleven, V.,  Pinkwart, N. (2006) In V. Aleven, K. Ashley, C. Lynch, & N. Pinkwart (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains at the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (p. 1-10). Jhongli (Taiwan), National Central University.

o   “Reasoning with Textual Cases.” Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley K. (2005) In the Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning. pp. 137-151. Chicago. August. Springer.

o   “Generating Legal Arguments and Predictions from Case Texts,” Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley K. (2005) In the Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference of AI and Law. pp. 65-74. Bologna. June. ACM Press.

o   “Helping Law Students to Understand US Supreme Court Oral Arguments: A Planned Experiment.” Aleven, V, Ashley, K. and Lynch, C. (2005) In the Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference of AI and Law.  pp. 55-59. Bologna. June. ACM Press. 

o   “Towards Modeling Systematic Interpretation of Codified Law,” Grabmair, M. and  Ashley, K. (2005) In M.-F. Moens and P. Spyns (eds.) Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, the Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference (JURIX 2005).  pp. 107-8. Brussels. December. IOS Press. 

o   “Toward Supporting Hypothesis Formation and Testing in an Interpretive Domain.”  Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. (2005)  In the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Amsterdam. July.

o   A Predictive Role for Intermediate Legal Concepts,” Ashley, K. and Brüninghaus, S. (2003). In the Proceedings 16th Annual Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, Jurix-03. pp. 153-162. Utrecht, The Netherlands. December. IOS Press, Amsterdam.

o   “Combining Case-Based and Model-Based Reasoning for Predicting the Outcome of Legal Cases”. Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (2003). In the Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (ICCBR-03). pp. 65-79. Trondheim, Norway. June. Springer, Berlin.

o   Predicting Outcomes of Case-Based Legal Arguments.” Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (2003). In the Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL-03). pp. 234-242. Edinburgh, Scotland. June.  ACM Press.

o   Teaching Case-Based Argumentation Concepts using Dialectic Arguments vs. Didactic Explanations”.  Ashley, K.D., Desai, R. and Levine, J.M. (2002) In Proceedings, Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference, ITS ’02 (S.A. Cerri, G. Gouardères, F. Paraguaçu, ed.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Pp. 585-595. Springer-Verlag: Berlin.

o   “Teaching with Dialectic Arguments vs. Didactic Explanations” Desai, R. and Ashley, K.D. (2002). In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Fairfax, VA. August.

o   “An AI Investigation of Citation's Epistemological Role”. Ashley, K.D. and McLaren, B.M. (2001). In the Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence & Law (ICAIL-01). pp. 32-41. ACM Press.

o   “Improving the Representation Of Legal Case Texts With Information Extraction Methods”.  Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (2001). In the Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence & Law (ICAIL-01). pp. 42-51. ACM Press.

o   “Introducing PETE: Computer Support For Teaching Ethics”. Goldin, I., Ashley, K.D. and Pinkus, R.  (2001). In the Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence & Law (ICAIL-01). pp. 94-98. ACM Press.

o   “Helping a CBR Program Know What it Knows”.  McLaren, B.M.  and Ashley, K.D. (2001). In the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning. (ICCBR-01) Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development, (Aha, D. and Watson, I. eds.) Lecture Notes in AI Nr. 2080.  pp. 377-391. Springer.

o   “The Role of Information Extraction for Textual CBR”. Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (2001). In the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning. (ICCBR-01). Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development, (Aha, D. and Watson, I. eds.) Lecture Notes in AI Nr. 2080. pp. 74-89. Springer.

o   “Assessing Relevance With Extensionally Defined Principles and Cases”. McLaren, B.M. and Ashley, K.D. (2000). In Proceedings of the 17th National Conference of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑00). pp. 316‑322. Austin. August. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA

o   “Toward Adding Knowledge to Learning Algorithms for Indexing Legal Cases”. Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (1999). In Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, pp. 9‑17. Association of Computing Machinery, New York. Oslo. June. Donald H. Berman Award for Best Student Paper

o   “Bootstrapping Case Base Development with Annotated Case Summaries”. Brüninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (1999). In (Althoff, K.‑D., Bergmann, R. and Branting, L.K. eds.) Case‑Based Reasoning Research and Development, Proceedings of the Third International Conference On Case‑Based Reasoning. pp.59‑73. Munich, Germany. July. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence No. 1650. Springer: Berlin. Outstanding Research Paper Award.

o   “Case Representation, Acquisition, and Retrieval in SIROCCO”. McLaren, B. and Ashley, K. (1999) In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Case‑Based Reasoning (ICCBR‑99). Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1650. Althoff, K.‑D., Bergmann, R. and Branting, L.K. (ed.) pp. 248‑262. Springer: Berlin. Seeon, Germany. July.

o   “Exploring the Dialectic between Abstract Rules and Concrete Facts”. McLaren, B. and Ashley, K.D. (1998) in Advances in Case‑Based Reasoning. Proceedings, Fourth European Workshop on Case‑Based Reasoning (EWCBR‑98) Dublin. September. B. Smyth and P. Cunningham (ed.) pp. 37‑51. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1488. Springer: Berlin.

o   “Developing Mapping and Evaluation Techniques for Textual CBR”. Ashley, K.D., and St. Bruninghaus (1998) In Textual Case‑Based Reasoning Papers from the AAAI‑98 Workshop. Pages 20 ‑ 23. AAAI Technical Report WS‑98‑12. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA.

o   “Evaluation of Textual CBR Approaches”. Bruninghaus, S. and Ashley, K.D. (1998) Textual Case‑Based Reasoning. Papers from the AAAI‑98 Workshop. pp. 30‑34. AAAI Technical Report WS‑98‑12. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA.

o   “How Machine Learning Can be Beneficial for Textual Case‑Based Reasoning”. Bruninghaus, St., and K.D. Ashley (1998b) In Proceedings of the AAAI‑98/ICML‑98 Workshop on Learning for Text Categorization. Pages 71‑74. AAAI Technical Report WS‑98‑05. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA.

o   Reasoning Symbolically About Partially Matched Cases”. Ashley, K.D. and Aleven, V. (1997). In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI‑97) pp. 335‑341. Morgan Kaufmann: San Francisco. Nagoya, Japan. August.

o   “Teaching Case‑Based Argumentation Through a Model and Examples, Empirical Evaluation of an Intelligent Learning Environment”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K.D. (1997) In Proceedings of the Eighth World Conference of the Artificial Intelligence in Education Society. B. du Boulay and R. Mizoguchi, ed. pp. 87‑94. IOS Press: AmsterdamKobe, Japan. August.

o   “Evaluating a Learning Environment for Case‑Based Argumentation Skills”. V. Aleven and K. Ashley. (1997). In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, ICAIL‑97. Melbourne, Australia. June. pp. 170‑179. Association for Computing Machinery: New York, NY.

o   “Learning to Classify Case Opinions under Abstract Fact Categories”. S. Bruninghaus and K. Ashley. (1997) In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, ICAIL‑97. Melbourne, Australia. June. pp. 123‑131. Association for Computing Machinery: New York, NY.

o   “Using Machine Learning for Assigning Indices to Textual Cases”. S. Bruninghaus and K. Ashley. (1997) In Case‑Based Reasoning Research and Development Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Case‑Based Reasoning, ICCBR‑97. Providence, RI. July. pp. 303‑314. Springer: Berlin.

o   “Ethical reasoning strategies and their relation to case‑based instruction: Some preliminary  results”. Ashley, K. D. and Keefer, M. (1996). In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society pp. 483‑488. LaJolla, CA. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.

o   “How different  is different? Arguing about the significance of  similarities and differences”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. D. (l996). In Proceedings of the Third European Workshop on Case‑Based Reasoning. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1168. Smith, I. and Faltings, B. (ed.) pp. 1‑15. Springer: Berlin. Lausanne, Switzerland. November.

o   “Reasoning with Reasons in Case‑Based Comparisons”. Ashley, K. D. and McLaren, B. (1995) In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Case‑Based Reasoning (ICCBR‑95) Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1010. Veloso, M. and Aamodt, A. (ed.) pp. 133‑144. Springer: Berlin. Distinguished Paper Award. Sesimbra, Portugal. October.

o   “Doing Things with Factors”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. D. (1995) In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law pp. 31‑41. Association for Computing Machinery: New York. College Park, MD. May.

o   “Representing Methods of Legal Analysis Imposed by Treaties and Statutes”. K. D. Ashley and S. Brueninghaus (1995).  In Proceedings of The Third  International Workshop on a Legal Expert System for the CISG, College Park, MD. May. 

o   “Context Sensitive Case Comparisons in Practical Ethics: Reasoning About Reasons”. McLaren, B. and Ashley, K. D. (1995). In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law pp. 316‑325. Association for Computing Machinery: New York. College Park, MD. May.

o   “Case‑Based Comparative Evaluation in TRUTH‑TELLER”. McLaren, B. and Ashley, K. D. (1995) In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society pp. 72‑77. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.: Mahwah, NJ. Pittsburgh. July.

o   “Using a Well‑Structured Model to Teach in an Ill‑Structured Domain”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. D. (1995). In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society pp. 419‑424. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.: Mahwah, NJ. Pittsburgh. July.

o   “An Instructional Environment for Practicing Argumentation Skills”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. D. (1994) In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑94). pp. 485‑492. Seattle, WA. July. AAAI Press: Menlo Park, CA

o   “Evaluating Comparative Evaluation Models”, Ashley, K. D. and McLaren, B. (1994) In Proceedings of AAAI‑94 Workshop on Case‑Based Reasoning. pp. 164‑171. Seattle, WA. July.

o   “A CBR Knowledge Representation for Practical Ethics”. Ashley, K. D. and McLaren, B. (1994). In Proceedings of Second European Workshop on Case‑Based Reasoning (EWCBR‑94) Chantilly, France. November. Reprinted in J. Haton, M. Keane, M. Manago (eds.) Advances in Case‑Based Reasoning “Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence” No. 984 pp. 181‑197. Springer Verlag: Berlin.

o   “Using Logic to Reason with Cases”. Ashley, K. D. and Aleven, V. (1993) In Proceedings of First European Workshop on Case‑Based Reasoning (EWCBR‑93) pp. 373‑378, SEKI Report SR‑93‑12 (SFB 314) Fachbereich Informatik, Universitat Kaiserslautern: Kaiserslautern, Germany. A longer version entitled “A Logical Representation for Relevance Criteria” appeared in 1994 in Topics in Case‑Based Reasoning. S. Wess, K‑D. Althoff, M. Richter, (eds.). pp. 338‑352 Springer Verlag Lecture Notes in AI series. Berlin.

o   “What Law Students Need to Know to WIN”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. D. (1993). In  Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (ICAIL‑93) pp. 152‑‑161. ACM Press: New York, NY. Reprinted in International Yearbook of Law, Computers and Technology, Vol. 8, 1994.

o   “Generating Dialectical Examples Automatically”. Ashley, K. D. and Aleven, V. (1992) In Proceedings, Tenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑92) pp. 654‑‑660. AAAI Press/The MIT Press: Menlo Park, CA, Cambridge, MA.

o   “Automated Generation of Examples for a Tutorial in Case‑Based Argumentation”. Aleven, V. and Ashley, K. D. (1992) In C. Frasson, G. Gauthier and G.I. McCalla, editors, Proceedings, Second International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS‑92) pp. 575‑‑584. Springer‑Verlag: Berlin.

o   “Toward an Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Law Students to Argue with Cases”.  Ashley, K.D. and Aleven, V. (1991) In Proceedings, Third International Conference on AI and Law (ICAIL‑91). pp. 42‑‑52 ACM Press: Baltimore.

o   “A Computational Approach to Explaining Case‑Based Concepts of Relevance in a Tutorial Context”. Ashley, K.D. and Aleven, V. (1991) In Proceedings of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Case‑Based Reasoning Workshop. pp. 257‑‑268. Morgan Kaufmann: San Mateo, CA.

o   “Toward an Intelligent Case‑Based Tutorial Program for Teaching Students to Argue with Cases”. Ashley, K. D. (1991). In Proceedings of the Stanford Spring Symposium on Argumentation and Belief at Stanford University. March.

o   Defining Salience in Case‑Based Arguments”. Ashley, K. D. (1989). In N.S. Sridharan, editor, Proceedings, Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI‑89). pp. 537‑‑542. Morgan Kaufmann: San Mateo, CA.

o   “Toward a Computational Theory of Arguing with Precedents: Accommodating Multiple Interpretations of Cases”. Ashley, K. D. (1989). In Proceedings, Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. pp. 93‑‑102. ACM Press: Baltimore.

o   “Waiting on Weighting: A Symbolic Least Commitment Approach”. Ashley, K. D. & Rissland, E. L. (1988). In Proceedings, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Seventh National Conference on  Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑88). pp. 234‑‑239. Morgan Kaufmann: San MateoCA.

o   “Reasoning Adversarially with Cases and Factors”. Ashley, K.D. (1988). In Proceedings, AAAI Workshop on Case‑Based Reasoning, AAAI‑88. St. Paul, MN. August.

o   “Credit Assignment and the Problem of Competing Factors in Case‑Based Reasoning”. Rissland, E.L. & Ashley, K.D. (1988). In J. L. Kolodner, editor, Proceedings of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Case‑Based Reasoning Workshop. pp. 327‑‑344. Morgan Kaufmann: San Mateo, CA.

o   “Dynamic Assessment of Relevancy in a Case‑Based Reasoner”. Ashley, K.D. & Rissland, E.L.  In Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, San Diego, 1988. 

o   “Compare and Contrast, A Test of Expertise”. Ashley, K.D. & Rissland, E.L. (1987). In Proceedings, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Sixth National Conference on  Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑87). pp. 273‑‑278. Morgan Kaufmann: San Mateo, CA.

o   “But, See, Accord: Generating Blue Book Citations in Hypo''. Ashley, K.D. & Rissland, E.L. (1987).   In Proceedings, First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. pp. 67‑‑74. ACM Press: Baltimore.

o   “A Case‑Based System for Trade Secrets Law”. Rissland, E.L. & Ashley, K.D. (1987).  In Proceedings, First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law. pp. 60‑66. ACM Press: Baltimore.

o   “Distinguishing ‑‑ A Reasoner's Wedge”. Ashley, K.D. (1987). In Proceedings Ninth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Seattle, WA. August.

o   “Hypotheticals as Heuristic Device”. Rissland, E.L. & Ashley, K.D. (1986). In Proceedings, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Fifth National Conference on  Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑86). pp. 289‑‑297. Morgan Kaufmann: San MateoCA

o   “Knowing What to Ask Next and Why: Asking Pertinent Questions Using Cases and Hypotheticals”. Ashley, K.D. (1986). In Proceedings Eighth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amherst, MA. August.

o   “Explaining and Arguing with Examples”.  Rissland, E. L., Valcarce, E. M. & Ashley, K. D. (1984).  In Proceedings, American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Fourth National Conference on  Artificial Intelligence (AAAI‑84). pp. 288‑‑294. Morgan Kaufmann: San Mateo. CA. 

 Invited Papers Not Refereed

o   Hypothesis Formation and Testing in Legal Argument.”  Ashley, K.D. (2006). Invited paper. International Congress of Comparative Cultures and Legal Systems of the Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Second International Meeting on Artificial Intelligence and Law, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City. April, 2006.

o   Case-Based Models of Legal Reasoning in a Civil Law Context.”  Ashley, K.D. (2004). Invited paper. International Congress of Comparative Cultures and Legal Systems of the Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City. Translated into Spanish. February.

o   “Exploring an Example of Creative Legal Problem Solving:  Inventing the NOW Account.” Ashley, K.D. (2003). Invited paper for the Special Workshop of the IVR World Congress 2003 on Creativity in Legal Problem Solving. Lund, Sweden. August.
Law School Education and Information Technology”. Ashley, K.D. (2000). Invited paper for the 25th Annual Meeting of The Law and Computers Association of Japan. November.

o   “Applying Textual Case‑Based Reasoning and Information Extraction in Lessons Learned Systems”. Ashley, K. D. (2000). In Papers from the AAAI Workshop on Intelligent Lessons Learned Systems. Technical Report WS‑00‑03. pp. 1‑4. AAAI Press. Menlo Park, CA.

o   “Adding an Intelligent Tutor to an  Electronic Legal Casebook”. Ashley, K.D. (1998). In Proceedings, Fifth International Conference on Substantive Technology in Law School and Law Practice, Stockholm, July.

o   “Evaluating a case argument tutoring program with a first year legal writing section”. Ashley, K. D.  and Aleven, V (1996). In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Substantive Technology in the Law School and Law  Practice pp. 100‑116. University of Montreal

 Book Chapters:

o   Ill-Defined Domains and Adaptive Tutoring Technologies”, Lynch, C., Ashley, K. D., Pinkwart, N., & Aleven, V. (In-Press). to appear in Durlach, P. & Lesgold, A. M (Eds.) Adaptive Technologies for Training and Education. Cambridge University Press.

o   “Instructional Explanations in a Legal Classroom: Are Students’ Argument Diagrams of Hypothetical Reasoning Diagnostic?” Ashley, K. and Lynch, C. (2010) in  Stein, M.K., & Kucan, L. (Eds.) Instructional Explanations in the Disciplines. pp. 171-188 New York: Springer.

o   “Case-Based Reasoning”, Ashley, K. D. In A.R. Lodder & A. Oskamp (eds.): Information Technology & Lawyers: Advanced technology in the legal domain, from challenges to daily routine. pp. 27-68. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2006.

o   Hypo: A Precedent‑Based Legal Reasoner'', Rissland, E.L. & Ashley, K.D., In Guy Vandenberghe, editor, Recent Advances in Computer Science and Law, Kluwer, 1989.

o   Arguing by Analogy in Law: a Case‑Based Model”. Ashley, K.D. In David H. Helman, editor, Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 1988.

o   “Toward Modeling Legal Argument”. Ashley, K.D. & Rissland, E.L. (1986). In Antonio A. Martino and F. Socci Natali, editors, Automated Analysis of Legal Texts, Logic, Informatics, Law, Elsevier (North‑Holland).

o   “Reasoning by Analogy: A Survey of Selected A.I. Research with Implications for Legal Expert Systems”.  Ashley, K. D. (1985).  In Charles Walter, editor, Computing Power and Legal Reasoning, West Publishing Co., St. Paul, MN